Definitions: Terms or phrases that appear in pop-ups on the desktop and mobile versions of the DSLD


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Alternate Names or Synonyms

Since there is no standardized way a dietary ingredient must be listed within the Supplement Facts label, there are a variety of ways a manufacturer lists them on the label. These can include the form, i.e., powder, liquid, extract; the source or salt in the case of a vitamin or mineral, e.g., ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate; or the Latin binomial name in the case of a botanical. In Ingredient Search, when the user searches for an ingredient, the DSLD will search and return all the synonyms in the DSLD for that ingredient.

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Amount Per Serving

For the DSLD, the "amount per serving" field lists the amount of the specific dietary ingredient found within one serving (i.e. 50 mg in one pill, 10 IU per teaspoon, etc.) as stated explicitly on the label. The DSLD also captures serving information if a product is dual labeled for more than one group, i.e., adults and children, or more than one serving as consumed.

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Bar Code

Often referred to as a SKU ("stock keeping unit") or UPC ("Universal Product Code"), this is an identifier used on products to track and identify products by manufacturers and retailers and should not to be confused with the DSLD ID, which is a unique number assigned to labels in the DSLD database.

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Blended Ingredient

The FDA permits the use of blended ingredients or proprietary blends and the option to declare (or not declare) the amount of each ingredient within a blend. If the amount of an ingredient in a proprietary blend is listed within the blend that amount will be listed. If not, "NP" or Not Provided, will be listed for the amount.

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Brand

Name given by a marketer to a product line. Example of brands include Centrum, One A Day, Equate, GNC Pro Performance.

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Brand Intellectual Property (IP) Statement Information

Many products include after their brand name a symbol that indicates the Brand name, and often a specific statement about the product, are protected as corporate intellectual property (IP). Examples include symbols such as ©, ™, (SM), ® and wording such as "Quik-Sorb (R) is a registered trademark of Bio-Botanica (R) Inc.".

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Category Codes (LanguaL)

Includes category codes for intended target group (user), product type, product form, and type of claim made on supplement labels. These codes are useful in customizing and filtering search results. LanguaL™ stands for "Langua aLimentaria" or "language of food". LanguaL™ is a structured, controlled vocabulary for describing foods in a systematic organization that simplifies retrieval of information for data analysis.

LanguaL™ an International Framework for Food Description Thesaurus (website: http://www.langual.org/Exiting NLM Site).

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Contact, Information

Lists information as printed on the label. This can include the name, address, web address, and/or phone number of the manufacturer or distributor.

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Contact Type

Contact type can be Distributor, Manufacturer, and/or Other depending on the self-describing text located above or before the company name and address for a product.
See: Distributor, Manufacturer, Other

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Contact Type, Distributor

Can be an individual or an entity that is responsible for the distribution and/or marketing of products. A distributor may use an existing manufacturer's product label, affix their own label, or modify specific aspects of a manufacturer's label.

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Contact Type, Manufacturer

The name of the company listed on the label. In the database, Manufacturer is used as the contact type when the label states "Manufactured or Formulated by."

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Contact Types, Other

When the self-describing text say doesn't indicate that it's either a Distributor or a Manufacturer. For example: "Imported by" or "Contact us at"

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Copyright Symbol

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Date - Entered into DSLD

The date on which the label information was entered into the DSLD. NOTE: this date should not be confused with the date the manufacturer introduced the product in the market. This information is not captured in the DSLD.

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Date - Off Market

The date on which the label went off market.

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Dietary Claim or Use

The categorization of label statements using the LanguaL™ related to Dietary Claims or Use [P0023]. More than one may be applicable if the label has one or more of the following claims listed.

LanguaL Code LanguaL Description
P0065 Nutrition-Related Claim or Use
When adjectives and descriptors like "High", "Good Source", "Enriched", etc. are applied to nutrients for which a daily value (DV) has been established.
P0124 Health-Related Claim or Use
Characterizes the relationship between a substance and its ability to reduce the risk of a disease or health-related condition. For example:
  1. Calcium and Osteoporosis and calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis
  2. Folate and Neural Tube Defects
  3. Plant Sterol/stanol esters and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease
P0264 Qualified Health Claims
Qualified health claims differ from health claims [P0124] in that they must be accompanied by a disclaimer or otherwise qualified. As they are claims that do not meet the significant scientific agreement (SSA) standard. For example:
  • 0.8 mg folic acid in a dietary supplement is more effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects. FDA does not endorse this claim. Public health authorities recommend that women consume 0.4 mg folic acid daily from fortified foods or dietary supplements or both to reduce the risk of neural tube defects.
  • FDA has determined that although some scientific evidence suggests that consumption of antioxidant vitamins may reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer, this evidence is limited and not conclusive.
P0265 Structure/Function Claim
Claims that describe the effect a substance has on the structure or function of the body and that do not make reference to a disease. Given that there is no pre-approved FDA list for these types of claims it must carry a disclaimer such as the following example: "Calcium builds strong bones. This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease."
P0115 Other Ingredient- or Constituent-Related Claim or Use
All other claims, like "not intended for ---", warning statements, allergen related, and etc.
P0276 No Dietary Claim or Use
Used when no dietary claims appear on the product labels.

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Dietary Ingredient

These are the "active" constituents in dietary supplements. By regulation, a dietary supplement can contain one, or any combination, of the following substances: 1) a vitamin, 2) a mineral, 3) an herb or other botanical, 4) an amino acid, 5) a dietary substance for use by people to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake, and/or 6) a non-nutrient or non-botanical (i.e. concentrate, metabolite, constituent, or extract of one of the ingredients listed above).

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DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes)

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference values developed by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine's (Academies) Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and are intended for healthy people. These values, which have been established for 22 age, gender and condition groups, include:

  1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half (50%) of the healthy individuals in a group.
  2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy people.
  3. Adequate Intake (AI): established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA and is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy.
  4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects.

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DRI Life Stage Group(s)

Refers to dosage information specific to certain populations such as adults, children, mature adults, pre-natal, or infants.  For supplements included in the DSLD, the formulation values are aggregated values to reference Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. When a formulation target group does not specify both gender and age group, the assumed target is an adult male, 19 to 30 years old.

The DRI Life Stage Groups are not used in labeling of dietary supplements and should not be confused with the intended target group based off the DV used in labeling.

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DSLD ID

This is a unique identifier specific to the DSLD database and different from the NHANES ID. IDs are assigned regardless of whether the product is on-market (currently produced) or off-market (no longer produced). DSLD ID numbers are not reused.

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DV (Daily Value)

The FDA has established four sets of Daily Values (DVs) for labeling of foods and dietary supplements: adults and children 4 years and older, children 1 through 3 years, infants 1 through 12 months, and pregnant and lactating women. In establishing these DVs, the FDA selects the highest RDA value established by the the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) within each of these four age and condition groups. The following tables compare the “old” DVs with the “new” DVs. All labels must comply with the “new” DVs by July 26, 2020. NOTE: the FDA has updated both the amounts and units used to express the amounts found in dietary supplements. See the Nutrient Unit Conversion Factors section or use the calculator to convert between units.

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FDA Disclaimer Statement

This statement is mandatory for structure/function or nutritional support statements and cannot be modified: "These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease."

NOTE: Unlike health claims, these statements are not FDA approved, and thus there is no official list of statements that appear on product labels.

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FDA Statement of Identity

FDA regulations require that all dietary supplement products must be labeled as a "dietary supplement", contain "dietary supplement" as part of a longer statement of identity e.g., "cod liver oil liquid dietary supplement", or have the word "dietary" deleted and replaced by another appropriately descriptive term identifying the contents of the product, such as "calcium supplement", "herbal supplement", or "herbal supplement with vitamins".

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Ingredient Categories

These search filters are available under the Advanced Search, and are defined to reflect how ingredients in the DSLD are categorized and coded.

  • Amino acid: An alpha-amino carboxylic acid used as a constituent of proteins or peptides.
  • Botanical or herbal: A plant, part of a plant (e.g., bark, leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, berries, or parts thereof), or an exudate (secretion) of a plant. While some would include fungi, algae and cyanobacteria in this category, the scientific community does not classify these groups of organisms as botanicals.
  • Enzymes are proteins that act as a catalyst in biochemical processes. This term is being used to categorize dietary ingredients in this database.
  • Mineral: A substance of defined chemical composition which provides a form or source of inorganic elements to the diet. An element is one of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. Examples: calcium, iodine, and zinc.
  • TBD: To be determined. This term is being used to temporarily categorize dietary ingredients in this database, pending further review for final classification.
  • Vitamin: An organic substance that is a minor component of foods, is essential for normal physiological functions (e.g., maintenance, growth, or development), is normally not produced endogenously (within the body) in amounts adequate to meet normal physiologic needs, and which causes, by its absence or underutilization, a clinically defined deficiency syndrome.

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Ingredient - Fact Sheet(s)

Links to journal articles or other information sources provided as supplemental information about the dietary ingredient.

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Ingredient - Group

This term/ID is used to group related dietary ingredients in the database.

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Ingredient - Nutrient CAS #

Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number for the ingredient. The chemical forms in which the nutrient can be found. CAS Registry Numbers (often referred to as CAS RNs or CAS Numbers) are universally used to provide a unique, unmistakeable identifier for chemical substances. A CAS Registry Number itself has no inherent chemical significance but provides an unambiguous way to identify a chemical substance or molecular structure when there are many possible systematic, generic, proprietary or trivial names.

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Ingredient - Nutrient Identity(as)

The chemical forms in which the nutrient can be found.

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Ingredient - Nutrient IUPAC nomenclature

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's Standardized naming of inorganic and organic chemistry.

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Ingredient - Nutrient Name

A nutritive substance or ingredient.

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Ingredient Name - Source

The source ingredient that supplies a dietary ingredient may be identified within the supplement facts label in parentheses immediately following or indented beneath the name of a dietary ingredient and preceded by the words "as" or "from," e.g., "calcium carbonate" as the source for "Calcium (as calcium carbonate).

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Intended Target Group(s)

Search options available in the Advanced Search that allow the user to narrow results by intended user group. NOTE: the FDA has established only four Daily Value (DV) categories for labeling purposes.

Daily Value Groups Code Description
Adults and Children 4 or More Years of Age P0250 Four years and above
Children Less Than 4 Years of Age P0192 Children 12 months - < 4 Years
Infants P0266 Infants/Children < 12 mths (1 yr.)
Pregnant and Lactating Women P0253 Pregnant and lactating women

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Label Statements, Formulation

Label statements that describe the cultivation, collection, manufacturing, or processing of the ingredients contained in the dietary supplement product. Formulation subtypes include Kosher, contains or does not contain, Type (i.e. specific age, gender, or life stage group or multiple groups), Organic, or Vegetarian/Vegan. Warnings are coded under Label Statements, Precautions.

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Label Statements, Precautions

These label statements contain cautions, special conditions for use (e.g. instructions for the safe and responsible use of the dietary supplement product), and unexpected reactions or interactions with foods or other ingested products. These statements may be general in nature or specified for age groups (children, elderly etc.), life stages (pregnancy, lactation, etc.), interactions with prescription medication, presence or potential contact with specific known allergens during product production, or any other precautions for a specific sub-group or actions to take if adverse effects are perceived after ingestion. Examples include: "Avoid this product during pregnancy and lactation"; "Avoid this product if you are allergic to yeast"; "DO NOT USE IF SEAL IS BROKEN"; " Discontinue use and consult a doctor if adverse reactions occur". Or the following statement, which is mandatory on all iron-containing supplements:

WARNING: Accidental overdose of iron-containing products is a leading cause of fatal poisoning in children under 6. Keep this product out of reach of children. In case of accidental overdose, call a doctor or poison control center immediately.

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Label Statements, Product Specific Information (i.e. Storage Instructions)

Label statements are included in this category if they provide information about the appropriate method for storage and handling of the dietary supplement product; i.e., control of temperature, sunlight, moisture, etc. Example: "Avoid leaving in direct sunlight", "keep refrigerated" or "store in a cool, dry place."

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Label Statements, Other

Any label statements that assert claims, such as structure/function statements, or assert specific advertising and/or simplified scientific or clinical language related to the dietary supplement product. These statements may also assert the quality of the dietary supplement product, or other customer-specific and manufacturing information.

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Label Statements, Seals / Symbols

On the label there may be specific information and an image presented as a formal seal with related language asserting a quality parameter or certification organization associated with the dietary supplement product. The presence of such a seal does not have to be approved by any government agency nor are any assertions that accompany such a seal necessarily verified by a government agency.

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Label Statements, Suggested/Recommended/Usage/Directions:

These label statements provide information related to the daily amount, timing and other usage instructions for the dietary supplement product.
Example: "SUGGESTED USE: One capsule daily with a meal, as a dietary supplement."

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Location on Labels

Dietary Ingredients must be listed within the Supplement Facts panel. When a dietary ingredient is listed under other ingredients, it is generally the source or the alternate name for that ingredient or the list of inactive ingredients or excipients.

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Multi-Pack ID

Is the DSLD ID which relates products together that contain two or more separately packaged dietary supplements that differ in content from each other. For example if the product has a packet of supplements to be taken in the morning and a different packet to be taken in the afternoon or taken at the same time, such as a prenatal multi-vitamin and mineral and a prenatal DHA supplement. This is illustrated in paragraph 21 CFR 101.36(e)(10)(iii) where the quantitative amounts and percent of Daily Value may be presented as specified in this paragraph in one aggregate nutrition label Supplement Facts panel or individual nutrition labels Supplement Facts panels. SOURCE: FDA - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements [21 CFR 101.36(e)(8)]Exiting NLM Site

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Net Contents Quantity/Units

For the DSLD, the "net contents quantity" field within the product description is equal to the total number of units included in the container as explicitly stated on the label. Values must be greater than zero, and must be whole numbers when serving size unit (see below) is discrete (e.g. tablets, capsules, softgels), but may contain decimals when serving size unit is measured in non-discrete units (e.g. milliliters, ounces).

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NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S. NHANES is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

NHANES collects data on use of vitamins, minerals, herbals, and other dietary supplements from all survey participants. The DSLD includes product labels reported for all products reported by survey participants starting with the 2011-2012 NHANES survey. Information on how NHANES collects information on participants' usage of dietary supplements, is available at www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htmExiting NLM Site

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NHANES [Supplement] ID

NHANES labels have unique identifiers assigned to them by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). While NHANES labels are assigned a DSLD ID, the NHANES supplement ID is also included so that label information may be linked with NHANES participant data by the NHANES supplement ID, DSDSUPID. For more information on how NCHS assigns NHANES ID's, please see the 'Data Processing and Editing' section of the Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies for any given years survey available at www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htmExiting NLM Site

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On Market

Product Labels are grouped into three categories, which can be searched together or independently in the DSLD via the Advanced Search page:

  • On Market DSLD: Product labels marketed (sold) at the time the database was last updated.
  • Off Market DSLD: Product labels that were previously sold; discontinued products or formulas. (historical data)
  • NHANES: Product labels that were consumed by participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) starting in 2012

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Outer Packaging

"Outer Packaging" is a product description field specific to the DSLD. This field will have the response selection of "present/not present" and identify whether the dietary supplement product container is marketed with an outer carton of any type.

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Product Name

For each dietary supplement product in the DSLD, the product name is identified from the main label panel. In a separate field in the database, but linked to the name, is the product Brand. The user can search the DSLD for all products with a specific brand and/or by the product names.

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Product Trademark

Product trademark is a distinctive symbol used to identify that the products for which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish products of one entity from those of other entities. A trademark is a type of intellectual property.
SOURCE: U.S. Patent and Trade OfficeExiting NLM Site

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Product Type

The categorization of products based on the content within the Supplement Facts box using the following LanguaL™ codes under Product Type for Dietary Supplement [A1298].

LanguaL Code LanguaL Description
A1302 Vitamin
Contains only vitamins, which includes: vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic, biotin, and choline.
A1299 Mineral (or Element)
Contains only minerals (or elements). Examples include: calcium, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, potassium, sodium, and chloride.
A1305 Amino acid/protein
Contains only amino acid(s) and/or protein containing products
A1326 Other Nutritive
Contains only nutrients for which the IOM/FNB has established Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs); not coded as a vitamin, mineral (or element), or amino acid. Examples include fiber, carbohydrates, fatty acids (lipids), omega-3‘s, or combination of any of these.
A1310 Other Nutritive > Fatty Acid or Fat/Oil
Narrower term for Other Nutritive [A1326] for products that only contain something like fatty acids (lipids), omega-3‘s, fish oil, evening primrose, or etc.
A1306 Herb/Botanical
Contains only herb(s)/botanical(s): plant and plant part, extracts (native, dry/solid, and liquid/tincture). Does not include fungi, algae and cyanobacteria.
A1309 Non-Nutrient/Non-Botanical
Contains only non-nutrient bioactives and nutrients for which there is no DRI established. Examples include any combination of metabolites, constituents, extracts, isolates, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria.
A1313 Combination
Combination of any of the above ingredients listed above. Examples include: vitamin(s) + mineral(s), vitamin(s) + botanical(s), vitamin(s) + mineral(s) + omega-3s, etc.
A1315 Multi-Vitamin and Multi-Mineral
Narrower term for Combination Supplements [A1313] that only contain the combination of vitamin(s) + mineral(s)
A1316 Single-Vitamin and Single-Mineral
Narrower term for Combination Supplements [A1313] that only contain the combination of vitamin + mineral e.g. Calcium + Vitamin D
A1317 Botanical with Vitamin/Mineral
Narrower term for Combination Supplements [A1313] that only contain the combination of botanical(s) and nutrients like botanical(s) + vitamin(s), botanical(s) + mineral(s), botanical(s) + vitamin(s) + mineral(s)
A1325 Other Combination
Narrower term for Combination Supplements [A1313] for all other combinations.

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Serving Size

For product descriptions in the DSLD, "serving size" refers to the total number of units in a single serving as identified in the Supplement Facts Panel. Values must be greater than zero, and must be whole numbers when the serving size unit is discrete (e.g., tablets, capsules, softgels) but may contain decimals when the serving size unit is measured in non-discrete units (e.g., milliliters, ounces).

In any given product, there may be more than one serving size or a range of servings per container on the label if the product is formulated and specified for more than one age, gender, or life stage group. When defining serving size, if there is a range of serving sizes, the highest value will be recorded in the database, and the range will be recorded as a note.

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Serving Size (Alternate)

When a label includes multiple serving sizes (e.g, "Serving Size 1 Bottle(s) (18 fl oz)"), then the primary is defined as the one that appears first or at the top-left, and the rest would be considered alternates. When an alternative serving size is specified on the label, it gets stored in the text descriptor for the first serving size exactly as it appears on the label.

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Serving Size Unit

A description of one serving's form (e.g., tablet, capsule, ml). Specific regulations govern the terms used to describe one serving's form. Also called "serving size declaration."

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Servings per Container

On the dietary supplement product label, the manufacturer indicates the number of servings that can be found in the product’s container. This number of servings is dependent upon the manufacturer recommended number of product units for use. In any given product there may be more than one number or a range of servings per container shown on the label if the product is formulated and specified for more than one age, gender, or life stage group.

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Supplement Facts Panel

The "Supplement Facts" panel is required for all dietary supplements. This distinguishes a dietary supplement from a food. Foods carry a "Nutrition Facts" panel. Information displayed in the Supplement Facts panel must comply with dietary supplement labeling regulations. The panel contains information on ingredients (and their amounts) used in formulating the supplement.

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Supplement Form

The categorization of the supplement's physical state, shape or form using the following LanguaL™ codes under Supplement Form [E0154].

LanguaL Code LanguaL Description
E0164 Bar
E0159 Capsule
E0161 Softgel capsule
Narrower term for Capsules [E0159], when a label describes the capsule to be a softgel
E0165 Liquid
E0174 Lozenge
E0162 Powder
E0176 Gummy
E0155 Tablet (will cover pill)
E0172 Supplement Form, Other (e.g. tea bag)
E0177 Supplement Form, Unknown

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Tracking Information

Complete list of the dates related to the label. NOTE: these are not dates when the product was discontinued or reformulated by the manufacturer or when the product was introduced in the market.
See: Entry Date, Off-Market Date

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RDI disclaimer

RDIs are based on dietary reference intake recommendations for infants through 12 months of age.

RAE

Retinol activity equivalents; 1 microgram RAE = 1 microgram retinol, 2 microgram supplemental β-carotene, 12 micrograms β-carotene, or 24 micrograms α-carotene, or 24 micrograms β-cryptoxanthin.

Vitamin D

The amount of vitamin D may, but is not required to, be expressed in international units (IU), in addition to the mandatory declaration in mcg. Any declaration of the amount of vitamin D in IU must appear in parentheses after the declaration of the amount of vitamin D in mcg.

Vitamin E

1 mg α-tocopherol (label claim) = 1 mg α-tocopherol = 1 mg RRR- α-tocopherol = 2 mg all rac-α-tocopherol.

Niacin

NE = Niacin equivalents, 1 mg NE = 1 mg niacin = 60 milligrams tryptophan.

DFE

Dietary Folate Equivalents; 1 DFE = 1 mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic acid.

Folate

"Folate" and "Folic Acid" must be used for purposes of declaration in the labeling of conventional foods and dietary supplements. The declaration for folate must be in mcg DFE (when expressed as a quantitative amount by weight in a conventional food or a dietary supplement), and percent DV based on folate in mcg DFE. Folate may be expressed as a percent DV in conventional foods. When folic acid is added or when a claim is made about the nutrient, folic acid must be declared in parentheses, as mcg of folic acid.

How to add or remove columns

To add and remove columns from the table, click the menu icon located in the top right corner of any table header and hover over the "Columns" feature. A menu will appear that allows users to add or remove columns from the table.

[[Screenshot image of kendo menu options]]

Select Options

Users may choose from a variety of "select options":

  • Must include
  • May include
  • Exclude
  • Begins with

The "must include", "exclude", and "begins with" options modify the selection criteria of the search, and limit the records that are returned.

The "May include" option does not affect the selection criteria for the search, but rather changes the results display when certain select options are selected (most notably, the "Display product ingredient details" check-box).

Example of "may include":

In the example below, a user has selected "may include" iron and "must include" caffeine while also selecting the "Display product ingredient details" check-box. The items returned are limited to those that include caffeine, but ingredients "caffeine" and "iron" are both displayed.

[[Screenshot of may include option]]

Example results:

[[Screenshot of may include results]]

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